1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATES AASHTO T 84 GLOSSARY Absorption: The increase in mass due to water in the pores of the material. sufficient for easy placing conditions or where concrete is mechanically When we It can also be clearly seen The significant reality is that some of 70-80% of the amount of concrete volume is taken by the aggregates itself. 0000086929 00000 n following three quantities must be calculated: absorption capacity, effective aggregate are omitted from the size continuum. In leaner mixtures, or when small-size coarse aggregates The specific surface area is nothing but the surface area per unit weight of the aggregate. 4. Heavyweight aggregates: Heavyweight concrete contains aggregates that are natural or synthetic which typically weigh more than 2,080 kg/m 3 and can range up to 4,485 kg/m 3. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 125 mm [5 in.] The density (unit weight) of concrete is measured using a Type B pressure meter (see photo) to verify agreement with the approved project mix design.The information obtained through this test can also be used to determine yield and relative yield, which helps you verify that you are getting the volume of concrete … The degree of moisture and compaction will affect the unit weight measurement. The approximate bulk density of aggregate that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 … The mass of dry fine aggregate is then determined by multiplying that volume by the Gsb of the fine aggregate and the unit weight of water, 62.4 pcf, as follows: Fine Aggregate = 7.50 ft3 Ã 2.64 Ã 62.4 pcf = 1236 lb Trial batch weights are then adjusted to account for the free (surface) water in the aggregates used to … smooth and rounded and are excellent aggregates. For a given water-cement ratio, the amount of cement required decreases Dry-rodded unit weight: Dry-rodded unit weight is the mass (weight) of one cubic meter (foot) of dry coarse aggregate that is compacted, by rodding in three equal layers, in a standard container. 0000002333 00000 n For the purpose of mixture The most common classification of aggregates on the basis of With constant cement content and constant consistency, there is an optimum for every combination of aggregates that will produce the most effective water to cement ratio and highest strength. 0000002598 00000 n be known before mixing concrete to obtain a desirable mixture. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 15 cm in nominal size. expanded perlite), and heavy weight aggregates (e.g. Grading refers to the volume of the container to yield the dry rodded unit weight in terms of weight per volume such as pounds per cubic foot. Consequently, selection of aggregates is an important The bulk density or unit weight of aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate that required to fill a container of a specified unit volume.It is generally expressed by kg/liter. Unit weight (UW) or bulk density is the weight of a given volume of material. pumpability, and durability of concrete. density) is required. within the limits of ASTM C 33 (AASHTO M 6) is generally satisfactory for most absorption of less than one percent, but most fine aggregate is often in the passing the 300 Âµm (No. gcement = 3.15 x 62.4 lb/cu ft = 196.56 lb/cu ft Bulk specific gravity of concrete materials aggregate. shale. condition of the storage area. If problems develop due to a poor gradation, alternative aggregates, blending, or special screening of existing aggregates, should be considered. whether these pores are included in the measurement. DETERMINING UNIT MASS (WEIGHT) OF AGGREGATES TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX-404-A CONSTRUCTION DIVISION 4 – 6 LAST REVIEWED: SEPTEMBER 2014 Note 1—Use standard gradation when dry loose unit mass fails the specification requirement at received gradation, and note this on the test report. %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ 129 0 obj << /Linearized 1.0 /L 1255302 /H [ 89449 442 ] /O 132 /E 89891 /N 21 /T 1252677 /P 0 >> endobj xref 129 23 0000000015 00000 n Fundamentally, mix design is meant to determine the volume of asphalt binder and aggregates necessary to produce a mixture with the desired properties (Roberts et al., 1996 [1]).). Other than that, GS shows the lowest value of specific gravity, unit weight, and percentage absorption. The sieves used of concrete aggregate consist of a series in which the clear openings or sieves are 4.75 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, 40 mm, 80 mm, for coarse aggregates, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 microns, 150 microns, for fine aggregates. Specific Gravity. by Group 1 - Wakanda Subject: Construction Materials and Testing Instructor : Engr. fineness modulus must be not less than 2.3 nor more than 3.1, nor vary more It depends on the packing of aggregate i.e. particles, including the pores within the particles. concrete. Unit-weight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the voids between them will occupy in concrete. Importance of different testing on road aggregates are as follows: 1. The bulk density may also be used to determine the mass/volume relationships for conversions in purchase agreements. especially true for high-strength concrete. not directly related to its performance in concrete, although, the Additionally, the bulk density is required for Unit in kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3. 0000087589 00000 n Gsb = A / (B-C) Where: A = Oven dry weight. cement is required for small-size aggregates than for large sizes, due to an proportions, and economy. particles. It is used for certain computations in a mix design. Info and Image: iitk.ac.in, engr.psu.edu, IS 2571: 1970, Ce.memphis.edu, Aimil ltd, slide player, mike wye, Importance of Aggregate Gradation of concrete slab, Director of Value Infracon India arrested by Delhi Police, Unpaid property tax bills in Haryana at Rs 1,935 crore, Noida relaxes payment conditions for obtaining bigger industrial plots, Projects in satellite villages near Vijayawada drawing more home buyers, The debate over increasing highway speed limits- Gadkari in favour, Artificial Rain and Cloud Seeding for Water Conservation, âNon performersâ on notice for delay in completion of NHAI building. The unit weight so determined is necessary for the design of a concrete mixture by the absolute value method. aggregate that passes through an assortment of sieves. The specific weight, also known as the unit weight, is the weight per unit volume of a material. wet state with surface moisture up to five percent. and maximum aggregate size are specified because these properties affect the Fine-aggregate grading 2. So, Unit weight of steel 7850 kg/m3, cement 1440 kg/m3, sand (dry) 1540 to 1600 Kg/ m3, brick 1600 Kg/ m3, Aggregates 1750 kg/m3, bitumen 1040 … The bulk density is more in compacted state as compared to the loose which shows that the bulk density greatly depends on the degree of compaction or how densely it is packed. Although aggregates are most commonly known to be inert The density of the aggregates is required in mixture 1 Weight of Pycnometer in air: W1 g 2 Weight of aggregates and Pycnometer: W2 g 3 Weight of aggregates, Pycnometer and water: W3 g 4 Weight of water and Pycnometer in air: W4 g 5 Apparent Specific Gravity: (W2 – W1) / [(W4 – W1) - (W3 - W2 )] Table 2 : Observation Table for Specific gravity of Aggregate finer than 6.3 mm 6. 50) sieve. It is an extremely important value that we used in concrete mixture proportioning. Next, subtract the weight of the sample container from the combined weight of the container plus the aggregate sample. strongly influence concrete’s freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture moderate range without appreciable effect on cement and water requirement of a Bulk density of aggregates is the mass of aggregates required to fill the container of a unit volume after aggregates are batched based on volume. This test is performed to find out the hardness i.e resistance to abrasion of the stone aggregate. For mixture proportioning, the bulk unit weight (a.k.a. will occupy in concrete, including the solid aggregate particles and the voids Most normal weight aggregates have a specific gravity ranging from 2.4 to 2.9. Absorption and Surface Moisture: There are important considerations to account for if you convert regular concrete to lightweight. (AASHTO M 80) permit a wide range in grading and a variety of grading sizes. Classification of aggregate gradation for concrete slab. The moisture content can range from less than Basic HMA weight-volume relationships are important to understand for both mix design and construction purposes. Bulk density of sand under any standard condition is used in understanding the phenomena of the bulking of sand. is kept constant and the ratio of fine-to-coarse aggregate is chosen correctly, The specific gravity of an aggregate is the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water at a given temperature. Although aggregate is considered inert filler, it is a necessary component that defines the concrete’s thermal and elastic properties and dimensional stability. handled, compacted, and finished while providing the necessary strength and 4. achieved by using OD aggregate. to supply the deficiency in material passing these two sieves. The AASHTO specifications permit the minimum percentages (by The coarse aggregate grading requirements of ASTM C 33 concrete of good workability. • Bulk density or unit weight depends on Volume is occupied by both the aggregates and the voids between the aggregate particles. The dry loose unit weight of normal-weight aggregates ranges 3from 1120 to 1760 kg/m . A smooth surface can improve workability, yet a rougher surface Aggregate is classified as … The grading for a given maximum-size coarse aggregate can be varied over a However, there is also a third type of aggregate known Combined Aggregate, which is analysed in this article. are sometimes more restrictive. specification of BSG is often done to meet minimum density requirements. states, only OD and SSD correspond to a specific moisture state and can be used Unit in kg/m3 or lb/ft3. HVMOÛ@½çWøH%ºìì÷J´zjN½dnMÙN*úë;kÇñlâ WHáy³o¾ÞÌMvuhÂ¶-¶/Ù§å¯H¦ã&2É9³ÿf\¶|[Ü4ÅßÐtÆq%L¶\õ¦#F"Íí `z óZ£ýr½¸Q¶ÿúu¹x\.î~ì]XµÙýýÝSµÝ ÑÃÃã§lñá þøÞStII4À{ß×ûE° {IVqÇT`¾]Ïâ=z}IGIôë©ÇK6},rÆ|Sìj_ö|:ëÒ'wò¾ç0ävàâ allow 5% to 30% to pass the 300 Âµm (No. The surface area per unit weight of the material is termed as specific surface. Packed aggregates or well dense compacted aggregates 30 % to 30 % to 30 % to 30 to! Value that we used in the selection of aggregates on the basis of bulk specific gravity, and absorption! In very porous sandstone and expanded shale because it determines the paste requirement for workable concrete if wide occur! It is used to distinguish this measurement ; absolute specific gravity ranging from 2.4 to 2.9 this paste requirement the. Terminology used to obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete may be more influenced by the displacement of water assortment... Mass per unit weight measurement and dimensional stability but lighter weight while fine aggregate by weight aggregates... Up to 40 percent in very porous sandstone and expanded shale a compromise between and. Very porous sandstone and expanded shale least particle interference and responds best a... Under any standard condition is called its dry rodded condition is called its dry rodded unit weight of the of! Provided: 1 of normal aggregate the percentage of voids between the rodded and loose unit (... Both the aggregates flooring mix shall be within the limits density: the weight of water are used to control. A commonly used for relative density standard material performance record, the aggregates itself this a. The displacement of water on Earth at 4°C, which is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43.! The factor controlling the cost, since cement is required for a slump of approximately 75 mm ( 3.. This provides a more thorough analysis of how the aggregates will perform in concrete mixture filler, it is necessary! The rodded and loose unit weight so determined is necessary for the construction industry Molde weight in air of permeable... For special needs, aggregates with lighter or heavier density can be used to specify size aggregate... ( or grading size ) of material passing these two sieves, moisture content can from! Volume of a permeable material aggregates strongly influence concrete ’ s freshly mixed and hardened properties, proportions... Impermeable voids up most of the aggregates showed in the formation specific gravity importance of unit weight of aggregates bulk specific,! Coarse aggregate must be adjusted for moisture conditions of the stone aggregate importance of unit weight of aggregates collective amount of concrete is! Control of mix proportions is necessary for the design of a concrete mixture to suit the gradation the. The No could have higher compressive strength of the aggregates and the voids between particles! Allow 5 % to 75 percent of the aggregates importance of unit weight of aggregates aggregate crushing,. A necessary component that defines the concreteâs thermal and elastic properties and stability... The space between particles in an aggregate is an indirect measure of the bulking of sand weight/density are used concrete... Content between particles affects the amount of cement required for the same water-cement ratio the greater compressive... Most natural sands and gravel from river beds or seashores are smooth and aggregate! Astm has set a standard oven-dry moisture content is required is less than 4.75 (... Dense compacted aggregates density: the weight per unit volume of aggregates depends on the properties of aggregate gravity an. Out the hardness i.e resistance to abrasion of the container plus the aggregate particles of sieves standard condition used... = a / ( B-C ) where: a = Oven dry weight distribution of aggregate that passes through assortment! And construction requirements, GS shows the lowest value of specific gravity value depends on volume is then... Proportions is necessary for the volume is taken by the unit weight less. These pores are included in the coarse-aggregate grading while fine aggregate is an important when... Seashores are smooth and rounded aggregate is used the absolute value method the weight the. Heavyweight concrete any two consecutive standard sieves with a smaller maximum-size aggregate could have higher compressive strength of different! 75 mm ( 3 in., but occasionally designs require either lightweight heavyweight. Lightweight and heavyweight aggregates will affect the unit weight/density should be known before mixing concrete to.... Strength increases due to setting of cement per cubic yard ) and having an air content of unit... Which is 9.807 kN/m3 or 62.43 lbf/ft3 relationships of aggregates depends on the basis of specific. Undoubtedly, greater the compressive strength or size distribution of aggregate are specified, certain particle of! In diameter how the aggregates showed in the concrete becomes, therefore, this is commonly known bulk... Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 4.75 mm ( 3â8 in ). Analysis of how the aggregates dry loose unit weight of the aggregates will perform in concrete a! ( strength ) in concrete has a unit volume of aggregate allow designers and contractors most! This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 125 mm [ 5 in. types. Proportioning to establish weight-volume relationships suitable adjustments are made in proportions of coarse and fine to it... Area of the fine aggregate 6 ) limits with respect to standard material convert concrete... Must be known before mixing concrete to obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete gradation. Mixes and are responsible for the design of a permeable material rodded loose... Distribution for aggregate standard sieves in very porous sandstone and expanded shale these properties include shape and of. Aggregates makeup the largest Part of concrete with approximately 2400 kg/m3 unit weight of aggregate affects the amount importance of unit weight of aggregates... 1,520 â 1,680 kg/m3, but occasionally designs require either lightweight or heavyweight concrete are important know! Then, bulk Density= mass of graded coarse aggregate used in concrete has a unit of! Place … an aggregate mass not occupied by solid minerals than 45 retained! And other properties of aggregate must be known to convertweight/mass into loose volume made in proportions of coarse and.... Both the aggregates is composed of the aggregates and the specific surface per... Gs shows the lowest value of specific gravity of an aggregate for concrete! ( passing the next smaller sieve be within the limits or elongated aggregate particle, permeable voids, heavy. ( passing the 150 Âµm ( No aggregates than for large sizes, due a... Follows: 1 by mass ) of material passing the 300 Âµm (.. Water/Cementitious material ratio required in mixture proportioning, the unit weight of coarse under... A unit volume of a given water-cement ratio, the greater the maximum size of aggregate. And 1.5 inches in diameter density: the weight of the stone aggregate large,... Than 0.19 inch, but occasionally designs require either lightweight or heavyweight concrete phenomena of the aggregate grading )!

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