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endemic plant species in cape floristic region

[1] Much of this diversity is associated with the fynbos biome, a Mediterranean-type, fire-prone shrubland. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa: Vol. Today, there are about 90 species of mammals in the hotspot, four of which are endemic, including two species of golden moles: the Fynbos golden mole (Amblysomus corriae) and the Endangered Van Zyl's golden mole (Cryptochloris zyli). Sixteen of these are endemic, including the Critically Endangered Table Mountain ghost frog (Heleophryne rosei) which is found only on the slopes of famed Table Mountain. 2004: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria ix and x. 2 285 plant species are known to be indigenous to the Cape Peninsula, which means that the Peninsula has the greatest concentration ofplant species (per unit area) within the Cape Floristic Region. It is one of the five temperate Mediterranean-type systems on the hotspots list, and is one of only two hotspots that encompass an entire floral kingdom (the other being New Caledonia)[citation needed]. The Fynbos Biome is considered by many to be synonymous with the Cape Floristic Region or Cape Floral Kingdom. Both disappeared in the 1800s. Most of the region is covered with fynbos, a sclerophyllous shrubland occurring on acid sands or nutrient-poor soils derived from Table Mountain sandstones (Cape Supergroup). Cape Floristic Region is one of six plant kingdoms and is the smallest, but riches in the world. Aim The evolutionary forces that gave rise to the exceptional plant species richness of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) have also likely played a role at the intraspecific level (i.e. [1] Thus, it is clear that the Cape Floristic Region has both economic and intrinsic biological value as a biodiversity hotspot.[1]. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides the Cape floristic region into three ecoregions: the Lowland fynbos and renosterveld, Montane fynbos and renosterveld and the Albany thickets. This biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, known as “the hottest hotspot”, has the highest concentration of plant species in the world. The analysis of big families (Containing more than 60 species); 4. The analysis of geographical elements in genera; 5. Foremost amongst these is the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) where 8550 plant species, of which 68% are endemic, are crammed into 90 000 km 2 (Bond and Goldblatt 1984). The Cape Floristic Region, the smallest of the six recognised floral kingdoms of the world, is an area of extraordinarily high diversity and endemism, and is home to over 9,000 vascular plant species, of which 69 percent are endemic. © Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro, Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests. The Baviaanskloof contains a highly diverse flora, since it is located on the convergence of three biodiversity hotspots: the Cape Floristic Region, the Succulent Karoo and the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. The Cape Florsitic Region has been identified as one of the world’s 18-biodiversity hotspot. wildflowers) and eco-tourism, is estimated to be in the region of R77 million a year. There are more than 40 species of amphibians in the hotspot. The Mega Reserve includes more than 9,000 plant species of which 69% are endemic. Small pockets of Afromontane forest (Southern Afrotemperate Forest) can be found in humid and sheltered areas. In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional … Here we test whether plant populations in the CFR exhibit phylogeographic breaks across the boundaries between … More than 6,200 of those species are not found anywhere else except in the Cape Floristic Region. Reptile diversity in the Cape Floristic Region is relatively high, with about 100 species, nearly a quarter of which are endemic. plant populations)—and thereby generating shared phylogeographic patterns among taxa. 1, pp. The region has an extensive protected area network that protects a wide array of ecosystems, but limited information exists on the role of protected areas in conserving the endemic freshwater fish fauna of this region. Figure 6: Examples of widespread dune endemic plant species from the Holocene dune landscape around Cape St Francis in the southeastern Cape Floristic Region. Read more about the hotspot's species in our ecosystem profile (PDF - 1.3 MB). Fynbos is home to a diverse plethora of plant species including many members of the protea family (Proteaceae), heath family (Ericaceae), and reed family of restios (Restionaceae). Ботанический институт им. 48, No. According to Takhtajan (1978), the following families are endemic or subendemic to the region: Grubbiaceae, Roridulaceae, Bruniaceae, Penaeaceae, Greyiaceae, Geissolomataceae, Retziaceae (Retzia) and Stilbaceae. 55-86. A number of mountain ranges are included in the Cape Floristic Region. Translate the English site to your language: The rich biodiversity of the Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot is due to an extensive and complex array of habitat types derived from topographical and climatic diversity in the region's rugged mountains, fertile lowlands, semi-arid shrublands and coastal dunes. Fynbos is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. There are some 6,191 endemic species in the Region. The Cape Floristic Region is home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, with 9,000 species crammed into its small extent. RED DATA BOOK SPECIES IN THE CAPE FLORISTIC REGION: THREATS, PRIORITIES AND TARGET SPECIES. Furthermore, five of South Africa's 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera are found only in this hotspot. Today, the bontebok numbers about 2,000, and the prospects for the species' survival are quite good. The Cape Peninsula is a well known area of exceptional plant diversity and endemism within the Cape Floristic Region, but an accurate and complete listing of the endemic seed plant species has been lacking. The sta-tistics of families, genera and species; 3. The fynbos ecoregion is within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. The Cape Peninsula is a well-known area of exceptional plant diversity and endemism (Trinder-Smith et al., 1996a, Pauw and Johnson, 1999) within the southwestern core of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa.The CFR is an area of high species diversity and endemism (Van Wyk and Smith, 2001), and the area experiences winter rain and summer drought, … Among the best-recognized plant species in the hotspot are the proteas, particularly the king protea (Protea cynaroides), which is South Africa's national flower, and the red disa (Disa uniflora). The analysis of endemic species and non-endemic species; 6.The floristic comparison in seed plants between East China and Japan. The site includes eight representative protected areas: This article incorporates CC BY-3.0 text from the reference[1], Smallest of the six recognised floral kingdoms of the world, "Cape Region" redirects here. 2014: Nominated for extension under original criteria 2015: Extended property inscribed under original criteria For the region in Delaware, see, Location of Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, Odendaal L. J., Haupt T. M. & Griffiths C. L. (2008). The pincushion plant (Leucospermum sp.) The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is a species-rich mediterranean-climate area with almost 9000 species packed in only 90,000 km 2 , a remarkable 69% of the species being endemic. The plant variety is based on soil types. В. Л. Комарова. Two amphibian genera are endemic, each represented by a single species: the Critically Endangered micro frog (Microbatrachella capensis), found in sandy, coastal fynbos heathland, and the montane marsh frog (Poyntonia paludicola), a species found in the mountain fynbos heathland. Cape Floristic Region is home to the greatest plant species in the world. It contains an estimated 9 500 species, of which 70% do not grow anywhere else in the world. The species density is the highest in the world, making it one of only 18 biodiversity hotspots on the planet. [1] The economical worth of fynbos biodiversity, based on harvests of fynbos products (e.g. It is located in the Mediterranean biome and Afrotropic ecozone. — Л.: Наука, Ленинградское отделение, 1978. These include the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise ( Psammobates geometricus ), the Cape sugarbird ( Promerops cafer ) and a number of antelope species. Some species are only found in small pockets and nowhere else on Earth, which is why the Cape Floristic Region was declared a biodiversity hotspot, one of 18 across the globe. Incredibly, more than 6,200 (69 percent) of these species are found nowhere else in the world. This area is predominantly coastal and mountainous, with a Mediterranean climate and rainy winters. In addition to its incredible botanical diversity, the Cape Floristic Region also supports substantial diversity among the fauna, with more than 560 higher vertebrate species. Covering 78,555 km², Cape Floristic Region hotspot is located entirely within the borders of South Africa. (1992). The hotspot is also the home of several small solitary antelope species, including the Cape grysbok (Raphicerus melanotis). The Cape Peninsula has 2,285 species of plants, 90 being endemic to the peninsula, the Cederberg has 1,778, including the local cedar Widdringtonia cedarbergensis (EN). One study on the Cape Peninsula found 111 invertebrate endemics in 471 square kilometers, a level higher than that of plants. In 2004, the "Cape Floral Region Protected Areas" were inscribed as a World Heritage Site. Of more than 230 species of butterflies, about 30 percent are endemic. It is thought that the Cape Floristic Region is experiencing one of the most rapid rates of extinction in the world due to habitat loss, land degradation, and invasive alien plants.[6]. The Region covers the Mediterranean climate region of South Africa in the Western Cape in the southwestern corner of the country, and extends eastward into the Eastern Cape, a transitional zone between the winter rainfall region to the west and the summer-rainfall region to the east in KwaZulu-Natal. The Cape Fold Ecoregion, located within the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, is home to the highest percentage of threatened freshwater fishes in the country. Nevertheless, the area is considered an Endemic Bird Area by BirdLife International, and is home to a number of true fynbos species such as the Cape sugarbird (Promerops cafer), the orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea), the Protea canary (Serinus leucopterus) and the Cape siskin (Serinus totta). South Africa itself has the highest tortoise diversity on Earth, and five species are found almost exclusively within the Cape Floristic Region, including the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus), one of the rarest tortoise species in world. The vegetation is dependent on fire to stimulate new growth in a 15-year cycle. Boland Mountain Complex has 1,600 plant species, 150 being endemic. Estimated, it has about 9,000 plant species and 1,435 threaten species. Cape Floristic Region is 78,555km2 and is known for its unique male and female plant species. The high levels of endemism present in the Cape Region are largely due to the presence of neoendemics rather than paleoendemic species. Taking into account the three main factors of human impact on this region, the future prospect for the Cape Floristic region is bad. reticulata , (B) Senecio elegans , (C) Olea exasperata , (D) Pelargonium capitatum , (E) Psoralea repens , (F) Agathosma apiculata , (G) Euclea racemosa , (H) Maytenus procumbens . It is the only floristic region of the Cape (South African) Floristic Kingdom, and includes only one floristic province, known as the Cape Floristic Province. Although little is known about the invertebrate fauna of the region, the few groups that have been studied suggest high levels of endemism. Leucospermums and leucadendrons are two more famous genera endemic to the Cape floristic region. (A) Heliophila linearis var. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. Koedoe – African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Conservation International: Cape floristic Region – biodiversity hotspot, List of Southern African indigenous trees and woody lianes, List of marine animals of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, List of seaweeds of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands, Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests, Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets, Nieuwoudtville-Roggeveld Dolerite Renosterveld, Richtersveld Sandy Coastal Scorpionstailveld, Southern Namaqualand Quartzite Klipkoppe Shrubland, Southern Richtersveld Inselberg Shrubland, Stinkfonteinberge Eastern Apron Shrubland, Pondoland-Natal Sandstone Coastal Sourveld, Subantarctic Biotic Herbfield and Grassland, Addo Elephant National Park Marine Protected Area, Namaqua National Park Marine Protected Area, Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area, Agulhas Bank Complex Marine Protected Area, Browns Bank Complex Marine Protected Area, iSimangaliso Offshore Marine Protected Area, Namaqua Fossil Forest Marine Protected Area, Prince Edward Islands Marine Protected Area, Southeast Atlantic Seamounts Marine Protected Area, Southwest Indian Seamounts Marine Protected Area, Port Elizabeth Corals Marine Protected Area, Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, South African Association for Marine Biological Research, South African Environmental Observation Network, South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Virtual Museum, University of KwaZulu-Natal Botanical Garden, List of authors of South African botanical taxa, List of authors of South African animal taxa, Environmental impact of recreational diving, International Union for Conservation of Nature, South African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, National Environmental Management Act, 1998, National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 10 of 2004, National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act, 24 of 2008, National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, 57 of 2003, List of field guides to South African biota, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, List of World Heritage Sites in South Africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_Floristic_Region&oldid=982815043, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 14:35. The Cape floristic region, located in the Western Cape and parts of the Eastern Cape, was first named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. While the hotspot never supported concentrations of animals as dense as the African savannas, it did once have significant populations of many of the well-known large mammals, including common eland (Tragelaphus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), lions (Panthera leo), black rhinoceros, African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Mountain zebra (Equus zebra), and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). "The alien invasive land snail. Of the nearly 35 native freshwater fish species in the Cape Floristic Region Hotspot, more than a dozen are endemic. CEPF is a joint initiative of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation International, the European Union, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan and the World Bank. The avifauna of the Cape Floristic Region is characterized by low diversity, most likely the result of structural uniformity in the vegetation and a shortage of available food. Fynbos evolved over millennia and is highly endemic. The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa. Conservation International declared the Cape floristic region to be a biodiversity hotspot. Of the 320 or so regularly occurring species of land birds here, only six are endemic. Home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, the region is the only hotspot that encompasses an entire floral kingdom, and holds five of South Africa’s 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera. South Africa has a boggling amount of diversity in its plant life, including over 9,000 different species on its Cape Floristic Region. 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